The simulation of electrostatic coupling intra-body communication based on the finite-element method

simulation of electrostatic coupHng intra—body communication based on the finite.element method
The
Song Yong,Zhang Kai,Yang Guang,Zhu Kang,Hao
(Sch00l of()pt∞lectmnic,Beijing
IIlstitute

Qun of‰hn010韶,Beijillg 100081,China)

Abstrct:In tllis the
were

p叩er,investigation h鹊been

done in the computer simulation of the electrostatic coupling IBC by using

devel叩ed by

finite-element models,in which a.tlle

incidence粕d

renection of electronic sigIlal in tlle upper

ann

rnodel
were

anaJyzed by using the山eory 0f electI_0magnetic w8ve.b.tlle finite-elerIlent models of electI_ostatic coupling IBC
using the

sofhare;c.the si印al anenuati∞0f electr08t砒ic c叫- pling IBC were simulated under the conditions of diff'erent signal fbquencies,electmdes directions,electrodes sizes肌d
developed

electroma俨etic

analysis package of ANSYS

咖smission
Key

distaIIces.

FinaUy,some important conclusions Communication;electrostatic

are

deduced

on

the b鹪is of simulation 1.egults.
area

words:In咖-body

coupling;finite?element;personal

netwDrk

ted under the conditions of



IntroductiOn
Intra_body

di能rent

signal fbquencies,

elecⅡDdes directions.electrDdes sizes and communi— used
as a

t】硼smission

cation

Communication(IBC)is a technology in which human body is
Compared

dis协ces


by using t|le developed model.

signal transmission medium.
I.ent

wi出t}le

cur-

TheOretical analysis
The

short distance wiI.eless technology,including Blue—
so

tooth,Zigbee and

high呦smission quality,high
ty,easy network
access

on,IBC has the

ch啪cteristics

elec咖magnetic si弘al,
an

which
can

咖smits

in

of

human body in the time

IBC

data rate,high securi— communication band—

h删lonic electromagnetic
layer, muscle layer

system,

be

equivalent to In this paper,

wave.

and

no

it is assumed tllat t}le upper layer,f矾

a瑚model
锄d pl跚e

consists of skin bone layer,as

width pmblem,etc.Due to its unique chal.acters,IBC technolog)r is proposed蹈a nolog)r for personal
area

novel锄d

promising tech—

shown in Fig.1.The incident
para

is j%睹.

戈一axis i8

network(PAN)…,computer
implant biomedical monito.

Uel to山e I舱dium

pl肌e

aIld z.axis is vertical to

ne伽ork

access

[2I,

the medium plaIle.The stmctuI.e of upper sidered
as n

a珊is


con—

ring[1,3|,human energy transmission[1,3’4|,etc. Although some discussion has interaction between the electrical been giVen signal and in the humaIl

la、rers

uni{.0m

medium.】Ⅵearnyhile.

1et

zero

section represent air medium,section

represent

muscle

body[5],little I.eseaI℃h has been done to describe the transmission mechanism of tlle electrical sigIlal in hu- man body by using the me出od 0f theoretical aIlalysis. In this sigllal in

medium,section(n+1)r;epresent bone medi? um,趴d tlle position of彳=名。represent tIle inteIfj∞e
between section,l and


section(n+1).
S∞tiolIO(airlay盯)

X—

p印er, the慨nsmission pmcess

of eleetronic


upper锄of
tlle

human body is 6rstly analvzed
wave.

SectioII

-z1

l(skiIIlay神

by using the

relatiVe theory of electromagnetic waveguide

CompaTed with

type,tIIe electmstatic

l卜l?%l
n -z

Se。ti∞2(f缸lay呻 Scoti∞3(nmclc l删哪
Se撕∞4(bonelay盯)

coupling t)rpe IBC。01 h鹪the advantages of low attenu— ation,e鹬y realization and low power consumption. In this paper,simula上ion of electmstatic coupling IBC has been done on山e basis of finite.element models.The

lr卜l

finite—element models of upper

a珊,elec咖static
are

cou-

ng.1-11地劬mctu他ofupp盯蛐modd
The electrieal field 0f section n,which represents tlle muscle layer of tlle

pling electrodes,air medium and tIle ground oped

deVel— pack-

firstly

by using the

electllom嶝letic锄alysi8

age 0f ANSYS,aIld then tlle砒tenuations were simula-

upper跚n model,i8肌alyzed

30

E蟛neeIing 万方数据

Sciences

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bssue 1aver is

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ANSYS

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万方数据

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Ihe


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m】s esLabl】shed

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freq…y,me姐mli Lud…r
condldons

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th…elver

nsi…f
under

m…ndltion“8=0,=S
,≤l
0 7 mV.mdl恤tmg thaI

MHz.th…lati…f‰alllpKtudes

MHz

I丌the

case



Ih…nuence甜lhe

is le%Il】an ckctrode

32

万方数据

En目neen“E&眦ceB

direction is limited.In tlle c踮e of厂>1 MHz。tlle iation of

var-

me砌plitudes
of厂=10
also

increa∞s衍t}I

tlle rising of sig-

indicating tllat the innuence of t}lis receiVer ekctrode ar℃a is considembly low on t}Iis condition.

nal 6.equency.It reaches tlle m缸imum of 158.7¨V in tlle c酗e of tlle T{lble MHz,indicating tllat the iIl丑uence is considerabl丫 incIeased.

electrode 1

direction

shows

mat compared衍山tlle c鹊e of

,,//石,me si驴al anenu撕on is relatiVely low in出e c踮e ofy上石,which represents t}Iat tIIe long a虹s oftIle

舯und
e1. 4.2

elecm)des is paraUel
si:砖

t0

tlle a】【is 0f tlle ann mod-

EI∞trode
Let‘=10

RadiW^眦

mm,ro。10 mm,d=10 mm,Af=

№.7 Res山缸ofA。ill加蚰oed by,.
4.3 Dista【nce The p部隐mete室of d that represents tlle distance

2 mV,and tlle transmission sigIlals

with,=10 kHz, 100 kHz,500 kHz锄d l MHz are印plied to the traJls. mitter electrode respectively.Tb investigate tlIe rela. tionshiD between the electIDde size锄d tIle a庀tenu撕on
of received sigIlal,ri is chaIlged五旧m

6姗to

14

I姗
are

between tlle ciI_cle

center

of t1?aIlsmitter electrode and

tllat of receiver electrode,was 150 mm with


ch锄ged

f而m 110 mm to

firsdy.The

锄plitudes
c卸be

of tlle

received

si鼬a18

sho舢in
plitudes
of ttle tlle
case

Fig.6.It

seen五∞m Fig.6 that

tlle锄一

step

of 10 mm.Meanwhile,let Ai=

2 mV and p=0。,tlle amplitudes 0f the received si分 nals were simulated els.
on

of t}Ie receiVed

si铲als incre鹊es and厂=10
area

witll me rising

the basis of the developed mod.

transmitter rladius. of^=14 mm

It reaches血e maximum in kHz.7Ihe simulation

Fig.8 is山e simul砒ion results of A。innuenced

by d.

results shown in Fig.6 indicate that tlle

tlle咖smitter elee咖de
v秭ation
than 1 of

incre鹊ing of me incre鹊ing
kHz,the less

c肌lead
case

to

of siglI以attenuation.In the

of厂=10

tlle锄plitudes
at

0f receivf泔signals is

删e direction is limited
of厂≥100

I工.v,indicating that tlIe innuence of tlle elec一
this fbquency. In tlle c聃e kHz,tlle variation of

t}le锄plitudes
area

0f陀-

ceived sigIlals increases witll me rising of 0,indicating tIlat tIle inⅡuence of tlle electrI谳e incI.eased. is considerably

【)i鲥雠e,mm
n昏8黜和lts 0fA。i曲啦nced by
It


c衄be

seen

f而m Fig.8
constant

th砒the锄plitudes
in tlle
case

0f


received

si擘mals

keep

of厂

10 kHz,indicating山at between
》葺面,皇I A羁《
on

tlIe influence

0f the

distance

t枷smitter electrode
can

and the receiver electllode

the 8ttenuation

be i霉阻ored砒this fbquency.On 0f tlle received signals of d.It reaches

tlle other
Radim/m“

hand,t}le锄plitudes

decre鹊e witll tlle rising of me

dist啪ce

tlle ma】【imum of 87.5¨V in tlle c鹪e of
li.ig.6

d=150啪

ReslII缸ofA。innⅡen∞d by^

and厂=10 MHz,indicating tllat tIle innuence of the

dist锄ce

between

t1.肌smitter

elect】的de and t}le receiver

Simil础y,r。is
const趴t.The

changed行om 6 mm to 14
are

mm, kept
are

electmde incre鹊es wi山tlle rising of si伊al fkquency. 5

and tlle otIler test conditions mentioned above amplitudes of t}le received

ConclusiO啦
Some

si鼬als

shown in Fig.7.7Ihe simulation resuhs shown in Fig.7 indicate tllat the innuence of
r。on

import姐t

conclusions are也erefore deduced

tlle attenuation 0f

re—

鹊foⅡows:a.ne
tlle

t瑚msmission of

VeIing sigIlal is similar to tIlat of rf.It should be noted tllat in tlle c鹊e of r。=6 mm,tlle oftlle received

upper锄model

elec呐nic si驴al
by using出e

in
re—

c肌be锄alyzed

ma妇mum锄plitude

nection and incidence山eory of electromagnetic wave, indicating dlat tlle elec仃0magnetic wave tlleory is
aIl

si印als

is

only 54.8¨V(厂=10 kHz),

万方数据

V01.9 No.1。M肛.20ll

33

imponant tool

to

clalify the mech肌ism of

in弧-body

[2]

Shinagawa M。nIkumoto M,Ochiai

communication:b.In tIle c鹅e of tha上tlle air medium model and the gmund model tI.ostatic coupling IBC the finite element
can aI.e

咖sceiVer

K,et

a1.A near-6eld?sensing
on

for intm—body

co唧uIlicati仰ba∞d

tlle dectn的ptic


developed,me elec-

efI毛ct『J 1.口£EEⅡ锄sactions册instmmentations叩mea8ur℃一 ment,2004,53(6):1533一1538.

also be simulated by using electrostatic
cou.

[3]

Sun M,Justin G A,Roche
power to

P A,et

a1.P船sing data and
EMBs

supplying
18一

method:c.In the of the

neural

inlplants[J].IEEE

pling

IBC,tlle

innuence

electmde direction,
r^1

龇e

ery

on

Clinical

N哪∞ience觚d Er晒∞erhlg,2006,Sep∥0ct:

M咿zine,Special

electrode size and tIle

dist锄ce

39—46.


beh盹en the tI乜nsmitter

elec咖de
t量le
case

L,Sclaba鹤i R J,Sun M.Bio—inspi-ed dcctric pow日deHv-

and receiver electrode is consideIablv low in of tllat tlle signal f诧quency is kss

tll锄



alIt朗na tllrough volume c锄duction[c]//Proc 3 l st Northe踮t Bi∞n舀neering ConR鹏nce.Hobok肌,NJ,2005:7l-72.


10 kHz.The influence《出e factors IIleIltioned above

incre鹊es witll tlle rising 0f sigIlal fbquency.
[6] Ref.erences [1] s帅M,H∞kwortll s A,T胁g z,et a1.H0w to p踮s i山册ati∞ 卸d deliver energy to a network of impl锄table devices within the hum锄body[C]//Pmceedi“gs
C伽如Ience of tlIe
IEEE of

W∞g J,Ni8hikawa.Cha瑚lcterization and perfb皿明ce 0f hi曲-‰一 quency pulse traIl8mi8si蚰fbr human body棚珊co咖unicati叩s [J].Ieice Tmns commun,200r7,E90一B(6):1344.1349.
Hachisuka K,Nal【ata ble intra—body
A,Takeda T,et

a1.Developmem of

weara_

co咖uIlication

devic船[J].Senso玛and

Actual舳

A,2003,105:109-115.

[7]

Ruiz tion

J A,Shimamoto S.Statistical modeling of intm-body pmpaga_

tlle 29th AIlIlu8l Intemational

ch粕nel[C]//Proc

IEEE

Wirele鹊C咖municatioIls明d

Net.

EMBS.Lyon,France,2007:5286-5289.

Ⅷ吐ing C0nfemlce.2007:2065-2069.

AuthOr Song Yong,male,was bom in 1973,and receiVed the Ph.D.degree fbm the Beijing Institute 0f Technology, Beijing,China,in 2004. Since 2004,he has been an assistant professor with the Department of Optoelec缸.onics, Beijing Institute of Technology. In 2007,he w聃an associate profess叫in School of InfonIlation Science锄d Tech.

nology,Beijing
te

Institute of Technology.From October 2009 to April 2010,he was



Visiting scientist in tlle Institu—

of 0ptics,UniVellsity of Rochester,NY,America. detection

His resea鹏h interests include intra-body communication,op- networks. He has published more thaIl 40 papers
on

toelec咖nic

aIld谪reless

multimedia He

sensor

intema—

tional and domestic academic

joumals.

caIl

be reached by E—mail:yongsong@bit.edu.cn

Foundation item:National Natural Science Fbundation of of

Beijing

Institute 0f Technolog)r of

China(No.1010050320804)aIld

China(No.60801050),the Basic Reseallch Fbundation National Innov撕on ExpeIiment Pro彤珊for

University

StudeI她(2010)

34

EngineeriIlg

Sciences

万方数据

The simulation of electrostatic coupling intra-body communication based on the finite-element method
作者: 作者单位: 刊名: 英文刊名: 年,卷(期): Song Yong, Zhang Kai, Yang Guang, Zhu Kang, Hao Qun School of Optoelectronic, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China 中国工程科学(英文版) ENGINEERING SCIENCES 2011,09(1)

参考文献(7条) 1.Sun M;Haekworth S A;Tang Z How to pass information and deliver energy to a network of implantable devices within the human body 2007 2.Shinagawa M;Fukumoto M;Ochiai K A near-field-sensing transceiver for intra-body communication based on the electrooptic effect[外文期刊] 2004(06) 3.Sun M;Justin G A;Roche P A Passing data and supplying power to neural implants 2006 4.Li D L;Sclabassi R J;Sun M Bio-inspired electric power delivery antenna through volume conduction 2005 5.Wang J;Nishikawa Characterization and performance of high-fre quency pulse transmission for human body area communications 2007(06) 6.Hachisuka K;Nakata A;Takeda T Development of wearable intra-body connunication devices 2003 7.Ruiz J A Shimamoto S.Statistical modeling of intra-body propagation channel 2007

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